Jasmine or Jessamine (Jasminum) (from Persian yasmin, i.e. "gift from God") is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family (Oleaceae),with about 200 species, native to tropical and warm temperate regions of the Old World. The majority of species grow as climbers on other plants or on structures such as chicken wire, gates or fences. The leaves can be either evergreen (green all year round) or deciduous (falling leaves in autumn), and are opposite in most species; leaf shape is simple, trifoliate or pinnate with up to nine leaflets. Jasmine tea is also tradtionally said to help against coughs, sore throats or other problems to do with the bronchites, although there is no scientific evidence to support this.
Jasmine flowers are generally white, although some species have yellow flowers. Unlike most genera in the Oleaceae which have four corolla lobes ("petals"), jasmines often have five or six lobes. They are often strongly and sweetly scented. Flowering is in spring or summer in most species, but in a few species, notably J. nudiflorum, in winter on the bare branches of this deciduous species.
Jasminium dichotomum (Gold Coast Jasmine) is a species of jasmine, in the family Oleaceae.
The plant is an evergreen climber which grows as a rambling shrub or woody vine. The flowers are quite fragrant and open at night, coloured pink when budding then white; these appear at the leaf axils in cluster. It blooms year round. The leaves are opposite. The fleshy fruit is small.
The species is endemic to tropical West Africa, but it has been introduced to other regions. In the Florida area of the United States of America, this plant is an invasive weed; introduced as an ornamental plant in the 1920. Spreading from gardens in the 1970s, in areas with soil disturbance, the species began occupying hammocks and forests.
Its vining habit can be trimmed in a dense shrub. Glossy leaves are very ornamental in contrast with dark pink buds and snow white flowers.
Jasminum nudiflorum or Winter Jasmine, is a slender, deciduous shrub native to China. It has arching green shoots and opposite, pinnate, dark green leaves. Each leaf is divided into three oval-oblong leaflets which are about 3 cm long.
As its name suggests Winter Jasmine flowers, in the Northern Hemisphere, from November to March. The solitary flowers have six petals and are bright yellow, about 1 cm across, appearing in the leaf axils.
Winter Jasmine likes full sun or partial shade and is hardy.
It tolerates hard pruning and should be pruned in spring immediately after flowering, regular pruning will help to prevent bare patches.
It can be propagated using the layering technique.
This species of Jasmine can be grown as a bonsai.
Jasminum parkeri also known as Dwarf jasmine is member of Oleaceae family. The flora, a domed evergreen shrub, grows about one foot in height, which bears a muddled bunch of small stems with tiny oval leaves. Teeming clusters of fragrant, tiny 5-lobed, yellow tubular flowers, from the axils of the leaves in early summer. Dwarf jasmine is a container plant or trained around topiary form.
Jasminum polyanthum, also known as Pink Jasmine (or White Jasmine), is an evergreen twining climber from China. It produces an abundance of reddish-pink flower buds in late winter and early spring, followed by fragrant five-petalled star-like white flowers which are about 2cm in diameter. It has compound leaves with 5 to 7 leaflets which are dark green on the upper surface and a lighter green on the lower surface. The terminal leaflet is noticeably larger than the other leaflets. The plant is very vigorous and can grow up to 6 metres in height when supported. Depending on the climate, this vine has a semi-decidious to evergreen foliage.
It was first described by Adrien René Franchet in Revue Horticole 1891, 270.
Jasminum grandiflorum (chameli in Hindi) is a species of jasmine native to South Asia. In India, its leaves are widely used as an Ayurvedic herbal medicine and its flowers are used to adorn the coiffure of women. In Pakistan, it grows wild in the Salt Range and Rawalpindi District at 500-1500 m altitude. It is a scrambling deciduous shrub growing to 2–4 m tall. The leaves are opposite, 5–12 cm long, pinnate with 5–11 leaflets. The flowers are produced in open cymes, the individual flowers are white having corolla with a basal tube 13–25 mm long and five lobes 13–22 mm long. The flower's fragrance is unique and sweet.
It is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in warm temperate and subtropical regions.
Jasminum sambac is a species of jasmine native to southern Asia, in India, Philippines, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. It is an evergreen vine or shrub reaching up to 1-3 m tall. The leaves are opposite or in whorls of three, simple (not pinnate, like most other jasmines), ovate, 4-12.5 cm long and 2-7.5 cm broad. The flowers are produced in clusters of 3-12 together, strongly scented, with a white corolla 2-3 cm diameter with 5-9 lobes. The flowers open at night, and close in the morning. The fruit is a purple-black berry 1 cm in diameter. It is widely grown throughout the tropics as an ornamental plant for its strongly scented flowers. Numerous cultivars have been selected, including some with fully-double flowers such as the cultivar 'Grand Duke of Tuscany'. It is the national flower of the Philippines, adopted by its government in 1937. In the Philippines, the flowers are gathered and strung into leis, corsages and crowns or its oils distilled and sold in stores, streets, and outside churches. The garlands may be used to welcome guests, or as an offering or adornment in religious altars.
Trachelospermum jasminoides (Star Jasmine or Confederate Jasmine) is a species of Trachelospermum native to eastern and southeastern Asia, in Japan, Korea, southern China, and Vietnam. It is an evergreen woody liana growing to 10 m high. The leaves are opposite, oval to lanceolate, 2-10 cm long and 1-4.5 cm broad, with an entire margin and an acuminate apex. The flowers are white, 1–2 cm diameter, with a tube-like corolla opening out into five petal-like lobes. The fruit is a slender follicle 10-25 cm long and 3-10 mm broad, containing numerous seeds. Uses: A perfume is extracted from the flowers, and a bast fibre from the stems. It is commonly grown as an ornamental plant, particularly in the southeastern United States.
Jasminum mesnyi – Primrose Jasmine
Jasminum humile – Yellow Jasmine
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