Terminalia is a genus of large trees of the flowering plant family, Combretaceae, comprising around 100 species distributed in tropical regions of the world. This genus gets it name from Latin terminus, referring to the fact that the leaves appear at the very tips of the shoots.
Trees of this genus are known especially as a source of secondary metabolites, e.g. cyclic triterpenes and their derivatives, flavonoids, tannins, and other aromatics. Some of these substances have antifungal, antibacterial, anti-cancer and hepatoprotective indications.
Terminalia acuminata was a species of plant in the Combretaceae family. It was endemic to Brazil.
Terminalia arbuscula (also called White Olive) is a species of plant in the Combretaceae family. It is endemic to Jamaica. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Terminalia archipelagi is a species of plant in the Combretaceae family. It is endemic to Papua New Guinea. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Terminalia arjuna is a medicinal plant of the genus Terminalia, widely praised & used by Ayurvedic physicians for its curative properties in organic/functional heart problems like angina, hypertension, deposits in arteries etc. According to Ayurvedic texts it also very useful in the treatment of any sort of pain due a fall, ecchymosis of all types, spermatorrhoea & sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhoea.
Terminalia australis is a South American species of large shrub or tree, which reaches up to 12 m in height and 40 cm in diameter. It inhabits the basins of the Paraná River and the Uruguay River around the Argentine Mesopotamia, Paraguay and Uruguay, and part of the Río de la Plata.
Bastard myrobalan - Beleric, also known as the bastard myrobalan, Terminalia bellerica, is a large deciduous tree common on plains and lower hills in Southeast Asia, where it is also grown as an avenue tree.
The leaves are about 15 cm long and crowded toward the ends of the branches. It is considered a good fodder for cattle.
In traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine, Beleric is known as "Bibhitaki;" in its fruit form it is used in the popular Indian herbal rasayana treatment triphala.
This species is used by some tribes in the Indian subcontinent for its mind-altering qualities; they smoke dried kernels. Too much of this can cause nausea and vomiting.
Terminalia bucidoides is a species of plant in the Combretaceae family. It is found in Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama.
Terminalia catappa is a large tropical tree in the Family Combretaceae. The tree's origin is controversial, and could have been India, Malay peninsula, or New Guinea. Common names include Indian almond, Bengal almond, Singapore almond , Malabar almond, Tropical almond, Sea almond, and Umbrella tree.
It grows to 35 m tall, with an upright, symmetrical crown and horizontal branches. As the tree gets older, its crown becomes more flattened to form a spreading, vase shape. The leaves are large, 15-25 cm long and 10-14 cm broad, ovoid, glossy dark green and leathery. They are dry-season deciduous; before falling, they turn pinkish-reddish or yellow-brown, due to pigments such as violaxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin.
The flowers are monoecious, with distinct male and female flowers on the same tree. Both are 1 cm diameter, white to greenish, inconspicuous with no petals; they are produced on axillary or terminal spikes. The fruit is a drupe 5-7 cm long and 3-5.5 cm broad, green at first, then yellow and finally red when ripe, containing a single seed.
Uses: Terminalia catappa is widely grown in tropical regions of the world as an ornamental tree, grown for the deep shade its large leaves provide. The fruit is edible, tasting slightly acidic. The wood is red, solid and has high water resistance; it has been utilized in Polynesia for making canoes.
Terminalia chebula (Black Myrobalan or Chebulic Myrobalan) is a species of Terminalia, native to southern Asia from India and Nepal east to southwestern China (Yunnan), and south to Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Vietnam.
Terminalia cherrieri is a species of plant in the Combretaceae family. It is endemic to New Caledonia. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Terminalia eddowesii is a species of plant in the Combretaceae family. It is endemic to Papua New Guinea. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Terminalia elliptica is a species of Terminalia native to southern and southeast Asia in India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. It is a prominent part of both dry and moist deciduous forests in southern India up to 1000 m. The wood is used for furniture, cabinetwork, joinery, paneling, specialty items, boatbuilding, railroad crossties (treated), decorative veneers.
Terminalia eriostachya is a species of plant in the Combretaceae family. It is endemic to Cuba. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Terminalia ferdinandiana, also called the Gubinge, billygoat or Kakadu plum or Murunga, is a flowering plant in the family Combretaceae, native to Australia, widespread throughout the tropical woodlands from northwestern Australia to eastern Arnhem Land. Its fruit has the highest known vitamin C concentration.
Terminalia januariensis is a species of plant in the Combretaceae family. It is endemic to Brazil. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Terminalia hararensis is a species of plant in the Combretaceae family. It is endemic to Ethiopia.
Terminalia ivorensis (also called Black Afara) is a species of plant in the Combretaceae family. It is found in Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. It is threatened by habitat loss.
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